Many cultures believe that the veil between the worlds is thin on the longest night.
Beings from other worlds can enter the human realm.
In some places this meant that ancestors would return for a festive meal but sometimes troublesome beings of dark intent are released into the world to worry humanity
The Kallikantzaroi (singular-Kallikantzaros) are tiny goblin-like creatures who live beneath the surface of the Earth at the roots of the World Tree. All year, these little creatures saw away at the root of the tree to collapse all of creation. At Winter Solstice, their work is nearly done as the vitality of creation is nearly depleted. But at dawn on the 25th of December, there is a breach that allows them to climb into our world and create mischief. This opportunity distracts the beasties, who are not very smart, from their attack on the World Tree.
The Kallikantzaroi are said to be quite ugly. Some sources report them to be like little black skinned humanoids with long tails but others claim they are many shaped, always with some kind of animal characteristic like hooves or the ears of a donkey. These subterranean dwellers are nearly blind when they reach the surface.
They may be found out of doors at night, where they will jump onto the backs of unsuspecting people to ride them mercilessly until the break of dawn. They are also known to break into people's homes to destroy furniture, making a general mess for their own amusement. It is recommended to keep the fire going in the fireplace all night long to prevent them from using this as a way to enter a home.
Since they are not very smart, they can be distracted by placing a colander on one's porch or doorstep. The little fellas cannot count past two for the number three represents the holy trinity so to speak the number will cause their death. Nonetheless, a kallikantaros will obsessively stay at the colander counting the holes by twos until the light of day. Another preventative was to burn old shoes, using the stench to keep the little demons at bay.
There is a more sinister twist to these creatures in Turkey where the karakoncolos can call out in the cold a snowy night, using the voice of a loved one to lure people from the safety and warmth of their homes. Unless the charmed person can be awakened from this spell, they may be lured to freeze to death in the night.
The kallikantzaroi remain on the surface for the 12 days of Christmas which allows the World Tree time to renew itself before they return to begin their erosion once again.
These creatures are in the mythos of southeastern Europe including Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Iceland- Jólasveinarnir ( The Yule Lads)
The Yule Lads are the sons of the fearsome ogress, Grýla and her husband, Leppalúði.
Each Christmas season, Grýla's 13 boys descend from the mountains to stir up trouble. The Lads have been around since the 17thC though they have been tamed down as the years have passed. Originally, these ogres were said to eat children so their tales were told to frighten little humans into proper behaviour.
For a long time there was no real agreement on how many Yule Lads there were but in 1932 a poem called "Jólasveinavísur” was written by Jóhannes úr Kötlum to describe and classify these visitors. His poem has become the definitive work so his list of 13 Yule Lads became the standard.
The Lads arrive one by one and depart the same way after their work is done.
Each night of the Yule Lads reign, children in Iceland place their shoes on the windowsill along with a specific treat, depending on the Yule Lad that is expected. Spoon-licker likes a spoon covered in batter, whereas the Candle-Stealer is looking for tallow to eat. If the child has been good, they will awaken to shoes filled with toys or candy. If the child has been bad, they can expect to find a potato.
Kötlum's list introduces the lads thus:
1- Sheep-Cote Clod likes to mingle with the sheep and suckle on the ewes
2- Gully Gawk hides his grey head in ravines until he can sneak into barns to steal foam from the milk buckets
3- Stubby, a very short and stout ogre, steals food from frying pans
4- Spoon-licker, a spindle thin fellow, watches for the cook to leave the kitchen so he can steal a taste from the spoons
5- Pot Scraper steals unwashed pots out of the kitchen so he can scrape them clean at his leisure
6- Bowl Licker grabs up bowls of food left for pets and finishes the food off down to licking the bowl
7- Door Slammer likes to wait until evening when people settle down to nap so he can slam doors
8- Skyr Gobbler is obsessed with getting as much skyr as he can eat. (Skyr is a sort of Icelandic yogurt served cold with milk and sprinkling of sugar on top)
9- Sausage Swiper hangs in the rafters near the fire so he can pilfer sausages as they are being smoked
10- Window Peeper is always on the lookout for something to steal
11-Door Sniffer with his huge nose is searching for Laufabrauð (a flat thin pastry approx 6in/ 15 cm wide- fried in oil)
12- Meat Hook steals any meat left unattended but has a particular taste for smoked lamb
13- Candle Beggar steals precious light giving candles. In ancient times candles were made from tallow so he was likely to eat his ill gotten gains
Iceland- Jólaköttur (The Christmas Cat)
The Ogress, Grýla, has an enormous black cat which also creeps down into the world from the mountains during the Yule season. The Jólaköttur stalks the land to eat anyone who has not received new clothes for Christmas. (In kinder versions of the myth, the cat eats the food of those who have not received clothing)
Krampus (from the German krampen “claw”) is the companion of kindly, philanthropic St Nicolas. Once St Nick had determined which children were naughty and which were nice, he and Krampus took to the streets to dispense the judgement. St Nicolas rewarded the good with gifts while the naughty were given to the Krampus to punish.
Krampus is a horned, hooved, hairy spectre whose task is to scoop naughty children up in a sack and carry them away. He is is often portrayed carrying a bundle of birch twigs (German- ruten) which he traditionally used to whip the children that had been set for punishment. This sinister visitor sometimes took children to a fiery underworld in a wagon.
In many of the countries where St Nicolas brings gifts on Dec 6, such as Italy and Austria, the night preceding is known as Krampusnacht. Given over to wild revels, parades known as Krampuslauf (Krampus Run) are held, where costumed devils and witches cavort through the streets with torches and an intent to frighten.